An endocrinologist diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of the glands that produce hormones, including the pituitary gland, pancreas, thyroid and adrenals. This career typically focuses on helping restore hormonal balance and providing medical support when the glands do not function as they should. For example, an endocrinologist can diagnose and treat patients with diabetes, cancers of the glands, thyroid disorders, hormone-related obesity and infertility. Endocrinologists who do not diagnose and treat patients often research the effects of hormone production, deficiencies in hormonal secretion, and treatments for related diseases and disorders.
A neurologist diagnoses and treats injuries, disorders and diseases that involve the brain and nervous system. This type of doctor cares for patients who’ve suffered strokes or injuries to the brain or spinal cord, diagnoses and treats tumors of the brain and nervous system, and helps patients who have chronic headaches. A neurologist also helps patients manage sleep disorders and pain related to the nervous system. In addition, this type of doctor can diagnose and treat conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. A neurologist who chooses research over patient care might study neurological diseases and disorders and identify new or improved treatments for them.